Parasitic parameters of natural filarial infection in non-human primates from Loreto region, northeast of the Peruvian Amazon


Filarial nematode infection is still a neglected disease very common in humans and wild primates, but have received few attention in forested areas of the Neotropics. Epidemiological data on filarial infection for primates in the wild are still scarce to understand the complex phenomenon of parasitism, especially because of the difficulty in obtaining biological and epidemiological information. The data describe parasitic indicators by Dipetalonema parasitizing eight free-living primate genera (Alouatta, Ateles, Cacajao, Cebus, Lagothrix, Saimiri, Sapajus and Pithecia) in communities in the Corrientes (José Olaya, Jerusalén), Pastaza (Andoas, Andoas Viejo, Titiyacu, Los Jardines) and the Yavari-Mirín River Basin (Nueva Esperanza). For the calculation of parasitic parameters, we considered the Dipetalonema genus, which was observed in all infected NHPs. Parasitic indicators for each host species, and for all primates pooled were calculated according to Bush et al. (1998, doi:10.2307/3284227). Indicators were: prevalence (percentage of hosts with filariae), parasitic mean abundance (PMA, number of parasites divided by the number of infected and uninfected hosts, expressed as number of filariae per host), parasitic mean intensity (PMI, number of parasites divided by the number of infected hosts, expressed as number of filariae per infected host), and amplitude range (AR, minimum and maximum number of parasites in a sample). The sample collection protocol was approved by the Peruvian Forestry and Wildlife Service (Ethical Committee for Wildlife Research, No0350-2012-AG-DGFFS-DGEFFS; No0249-2013-AG-DGFFS-DGEFFS). We also include climatic, ecological and biological factors. Data include presence and number of filariae per primate host and average body mass. The sex and female reproductive state were determined through examinations of the genitalia in each hunted specimen. Between 2009 and 2015, in the Yavari-Mirín River basin we established three transects to estimate group size and density of primate populations, and annual changes in ripe fruit availability. We estimated the density (individuals/km²) of each NHP species from direct sightings conducted on twelve 4-km wide transects monitored, with a total of 1,173.5 km survey effort in upland and flooded forests. Transects were opened prior to the surveys and researchers and local residents walked each one multiple times. Two observers (a technician and a local resident, or two local residents) walked the trails between 6:00 h and 15:00 h at an average speed of 1.5 km/h. When a group of NHP was encountered, the number of individuals was recorded, and the perpendicular distance from the trail to the first individual sighted was measured with a measuring tape. Distance 7.1 software was used to estimate population density (number of individuals/km²) of each NHPs species (Peres CA (1999) General guidelines for standardizing line-transect surveys of tropical forest primates. Neotropical Primates 7:11-16; Buckland S, Anderson D, Burnham K, Laake J, Borchers D, Thomas L (2001) Introduction to distance sampling: Estimating abundance of biological populations, Oxford: Oxford University Press). This information was also used to calculate the average group size (individuals/group) of each NHP species. Information on river water elevation (in meters above sea level, m.a.s.l.) and rainfall (in mm3) was obtained from data from the Yavari River hydrological station. These information was used to assess the relationship between the average body mass, group size and density of primate populations with parasitic indicators. We also assessed the influence of environmental variables (monthly rainfall and the percentage of trees bearing fruits) on infection patterns, using Lagothrix lagothrica poeppigii in the Yavari-Mirín River.

Related Identifier
Metadata Access
Creator Conga, David F; El Bizri, Hani Rocha; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Mayor, Pedro
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Publication Year 2020
Rights Data access is restricted (moratorium, sensitive data, license constraints)
OpenAccess false
Language English
Resource Type Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 3617 data points
Discipline Earth System Research