Seawater carbonate chemistry and shoaling performance and lateralization of novel tropical–temperate fish shoals

DOI

Gregarious behaviours are common in animals and provide various benefits such as food acquisition and protection against predators. Many gregarious tropical species are shifting poleward under current ocean warming, creating novel species and social interactions with local temperate taxa. However, how the dynamics of these novel shoals might be altered by future ocean warming and acidification remains untested. Here we evaluate how novel species interactions, ocean acidification and warming affect shoaling dynamics, motor lateralization and boldness of range-extending tropical and co-shoaling temperate fishes under controlled laboratory conditions. Fishes were exposed to 1 of 12 treatments (combinations of three temperature levels, two pCO2 levels and two shoal type levels: mixed species or temperate only) for 38 days. Lateralization (a measure of asymmetric expression of cognitive function in group coordination and predator escape) of tropical and temperate species was right-side biased under present-day conditions, but side bias significantly diminished in tropical and temperate fishes under ocean acidification. Ocean acidification also decreased shoal cohesion irrespective of shoaling type, with mixed-species shoals showing significantly lower cohesion than temperate-only shoals irrespective of climate stressors. Tropical fish became bolder under ocean acidification (after 4 weeks), and temperate fish became bolder with increasing temperature, while ocean acidification dampened temperate fish boldness. Our findings highlight the direct effect of climate stressors on fish behaviour and the interplay with the indirect effects of novel species interactions. Because strong shoal cohesion and lateralization are key determinants of species fitness, their degradation under ocean warming and acidification could adversely affect species performance in novel assemblages in a future ocean, and might slow down tropical species range extensions.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2021) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2022-3-1.

Identifier
DOI https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.941935
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16022
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.25909/17011619
Related Identifier https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/seacarb/index.html
Metadata Access https://ws.pangaea.de/oai/provider?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=datacite4&identifier=oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.941935
Provenance
Creator Mitchell, Angus; Booth, David J; Nagelkerken, Ivan
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2022
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
OpenAccess true
Representation
Language English
Resource Type Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 44919 data points
Discipline Earth System Research