Seawater carbonate chemistry, calcification and dissolution response, and skeletal mineralogy of benthic orhanisms during experiments, 2011


Increasing atmospheric pCO2 reduces the saturation state of seawater with respect to the aragonite, high-Mg calcite (Mg/Ca > 0.04), and low-Mg calcite (Mg/Ca < 0.04) minerals from which marine calcifiers build their shells and skeletons. Notably, these polymorphs of CaCO3 have different solubilities in seawater: aragonite is more soluble than pure calcite, and the solubility of calcite increases with its Mg-content. Although much recent progress has been made investigating the effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification on rates of biological calcification, considerable uncertainties remain regarding impacts on shell/skeletal polymorph mineralogy. To investigate this subject, eighteen species of marine calcifiers were reared for 60-days in seawater bubbled with air-CO2 mixtures of 409 ± 6, 606 ± 7, 903 ± 12, and 2856 ± 54 ppm pCO2, yielding aragonite saturation states of 2.5 ± 0.4, 2.0 ± 0.4, 1.5 ± 0.3, and 0.7 ± 0.2. Calcite/aragonite ratios within bimineralic calcifiers increased with increasing pCO2, but were invariant within monomineralic calcifiers. Calcite Mg/Ca ratios (Mg/CaC) also varied with atmospheric pCO2 for two of the five high-Mg-calcite-producing organisms, but not for the low-Mg-calcite-producing organisms. These results suggest that shell/skeletal mineralogy within some--but not all--marine calcifiers will change as atmospheric pCO2 continues rising as a result of fossil fuel combustion and deforestation. Paleoceanographic reconstructions of seawater Mg/Ca, temperature, and salinity from the Mg/CaC of well-preserved calcitic marine fossils may also be improved by accounting for the effects of paleo-atmospheric pCO2 on skeletal Mg-fractionation.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).

Supplement to: Ries, Justin B (2011): Skeletal mineralogy in a high-CO2 world. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 403(1-2), 54-65

Related Identifier
Metadata Access
Creator Ries, Justin B (ORCID: 0000-0001-8427-206X)
Publisher PANGAEA
Contributor Nisumaa, Anne-Marin
Publication Year 2011
Funding Reference Seventh Framework Programme Crossref Funder ID 211384 European Project on Ocean Acidification; Sixth Framework Programme Crossref Funder ID 511106 European network of excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported;
OpenAccess true
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset; Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 2760 data points
Discipline Earth System Research