The dataset is composed of 61 samples from 15 stations. The phytoplankton samples were collected by 5l Niskin bottles attached to the CTD system. The sampling depths were selected according to the CTD profile and the in situ fluorometer readings: surface, temperature, salinity and fluorescence gradients and 1 m above the bottom. At some stations phytoplankton net samples (20 µm mesh-size) were collected to assist species biodiversity examination. The samples (1l sea water) were preserved in 4% buffered to pH 8-8.2 with disodiumtetraborate formaldehyde solution and stored in plastic containers. On board at each station few live samples were qualitatively examined under microscope for preliminary analysis of taxonomic composition and dominant species.Taxon-specific phytoplankton abundance were concentrated down to 50 cm**3 by slow decantation after storage for 20 days in a cool and dark place. The species identification was done under light microscope OLIMPUS–BS41 connected to a video-interactive image analysis system at magnification of the ocular 10X and objective – 40X. A Sedgwick-Rafter camera (1ml) was used for counting. 400 specimen were counted for each sample, while rare and large species were checked in the whole sample (Manual of phytoplankton, 2005). Species identification was mainly after Carmelo T. (1997) and Fukuyo, Y. (2000).The cell biovolume of the taxon-specific phytoplankton biomass was determined based on morpho-metric measurement of phytoplankton units and the corresponding geometric shapes as described in detail in (Edier, 1979).