Parallel sense-annotated corpus ELEXIS-WSD 1.1


ELEXIS-WSD is a parallel sense-annotated corpus in which content words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs) have been assigned senses. Version 1.1 contains sentences for 10 languages: Bulgarian, Danish, English, Spanish, Estonian, Hungarian, Italian, Dutch, Portuguese, and Slovene.

The corpus was compiled by automatically extracting a set of sentences from WikiMatrix (Schwenk et al., 2019), a large open-access collection of parallel sentences derived from Wikipedia, using an automatic approach based on multilingual sentence embeddings. The sentences were manually validated according to specific formal, lexical and semantic criteria (e.g. by removing incorrect punctuation, morphological errors, notes in square brackets and etymological information typically provided in Wikipedia pages). To obtain a satisfying semantic coverage, we filtered out sentences with less than 5 words and less than 2 polysemous words were filtered out. Subsequently, in order to obtain datasets in the other nine target languages, for each selected sentence in English, the corresponding WikiMatrix translation into each of the other languages was retrieved. If no translation was available, the English sentence was translated manually. The resulting corpus is comprised of 2,024 sentences for each language.

The sentences were tokenized, lemmatized, and tagged with POS tags using UDPipe v2.6 ( Senses were annotated using LexTag ( each content word (noun, verb, adjective, and adverb) was assigned a sense from among the available senses from the sense inventory selected for the language (see below) or BabelNet. Sense inventories were also updated with new senses during annotation.

List of sense inventories BG: Dictionary of Bulgarian DA: DanNet – The Danish WordNet EN: Open English WordNet ES: Spanish Wiktionary ET: The EKI Combined Dictionary of Estonian HU: The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language IT: PSC + Italian WordNet NL: Open Dutch WordNet PT: Portuguese Academy Dictionary (DACL) SL: Digital Dictionary Database of Slovene

The corpus is available in the CoNLL-U tab-separated format. In order, the columns contain the token ID, its form, its lemma, its UPOS-tag, five empty columns (reserved for e.g. dependency parsing, which is absent from this version), and the final MISC column containing the following: the token's whitespace information (whether the token is followed by a whitespace or not), the ID of the sense assigned to the token, and the index of the multiword expression (if the token is part of an annotated multiword expression).

Each language has a separate sense inventory containing all the senses (and their definitions) used for annotation in the corpus. Not all the senses from the sense inventory are necessarily included in the corpus annotations: for instance, all occurrences of the English noun "bank" in the corpus might be annotated with the sense of "financial institution", but the sense inventory also contains the sense "edge of a river" as well as all other possible senses to disambiguate between.

For more information, please refer to 00README.txt.

Differences to version 1.0: - Several minor errors were fixed (e.g. a typo in one of the Slovene sense IDs). - The corpus was converted to the true CoNLL-U format (as opposed to the CoNLL-U-like format used in v1.0). - An error was fixed that resulted in missing UPOS tags in version 1.0. - The sentences in all corpora now follow the same order (from 1 to 2024).

Related Identifier
Related Identifier
Related Identifier
Metadata Access
Creator Martelli, Federico; Navigli, Roberto; Krek, Simon; Kallas, Jelena; Gantar, Polona; Koeva, Svetla; Nimb, Sanni; Sandford Pedersen, Bolette; Olsen, Sussi; Langemets, Margit; Koppel, Kristina; Üksik, Tiiu; Dobrovoljc, Kaja; Ureña-Ruiz, Rafael; Sancho-Sánchez, José-Luis; Lipp, Veronika; Váradi, Tamás; Győrffy, András; Simon, László; Quochi, Valeria; Monachini, Monica; Frontini, Francesca; Tiberius, Carole; Tempelaars, Rob; Costa, Rute; Salgado, Ana; Čibej, Jaka; Munda, Tina; Kosem, Iztok; Roblek, Rebeka; Kamenšek, Urška; Zaranšek, Petra; Zgaga, Karolina; Ponikvar, Primož; Terčon, Luka; Jensen, Jonas; Flörke, Ida; Lorentzen, Henrik; Troelsgård, Thomas; Blagoeva, Diana; Hristov, Dimitar; Kolkovska, Sia
Publisher Jožef Stefan Institute
Publication Year 2023
Funding Reference info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/731015
Rights Creative Commons - Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0);; PUB
OpenAccess true
Contact info(at)
Language Slovenian; Slovene; English; Bulgarian; Danish; Portuguese; Italian; Spanish; Castilian; Hungarian; Estonian; Dutch; Flemish
Resource Type corpus
Format text/plain; charset=utf-8; application/zip; downloadable_files_count: 1
Discipline Linguistics