We investigated the effects of seawater equilibrated with CO2-enriched air (2000 ppm, pH 7.4) on the early development of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussel embryos were incubated for 144 h (6 d) in control and high-CO2 seawater to compare embryogenesis, larval growth and morphology with ordinary light, polarized light, and scanning electron microscopy. Embryogenesis was unaffected by exposure to high-CO2 seawater up to the trochophore stage, but development at the trochophore stage was delayed when the shell began to form. All veliger larvae of the high-CO2 group showed morphological abnormalities such as convex hinge, protrusion of the mantle and malformation of shells. Larval height and length were 26 +- 1.9% and 20 +- 1.1% smaller, respectively, in the high-CO2 group than in the control at 144 h. These results are consistent with our previous findings of CO2 effects on early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas, although the severity of CO2 damage appears to be less in M. galloprovincialis, possibly due to differing spawning seasons (oyster: summer; mussel: winter). Results from this and the previous study indicate that high CO2 (2000 ppm) interferes with early development, particularly with larval shell synthesis, of bivalves; however, vulnerability to high CO2 differs between species. Taken together with recent studies demonstrating negative impacts of high CO2 on adult mussels and oysters, results imply a future decrease of bivalve populations in the oceans, unless acclimation to the predicted environmental alteration occurs.
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2020) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2020-10-30.