Migrations between Africa and Europe - MAFE DR Congo (2009)

Le projet de recherche MAFE est une initiative de grande ampleur dont l'objectif est d'étudier les migrations entre l'Afrique subsaharienne et l'Europe. - Attention, la documentation des enquêtes MAFE est en langue anglaise. - ____ The MAFE project is a major research initiative focused on migration between Sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. It brings together ten European and African research centres working on international migration. In the early XXIth Century, international migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe has generated increasing public and policy attention. The flotilla of boats bringing would-be migrants to the Canary Islands, and attempts to reach Spanish territory in Ceuta and Mellila have drawn a rapid response from Europe in the form of new policy measures. Yet the scope, nature and likely development of Sub-Saharan African migration to Europe remained poorly understood, and, as a result, European polices may be ineffective. A major cause of this lack of understanding was the absence of comprehensive data on the causes of migration and circulation between Africa and Europe. The MAFE project aimed at overcoming this lack of understanding by collecting unique data on the characteristics and behavior of migrants from Sub-Saharan countries to Europe. The key notion underpinning the project was that migration must not only be seen as a one-way flow from Africa to Europe. The argument was that return migration, circulation and transnational practices are significant and must be understood in order to design better migration policy. The MAFE project focused on migration flows between Europe (Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK) and Senegal, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Ghana, which together accounted for over a quarter of all African migration to the EU at the time of the survey. In each of these "migration systems", the survey was designed to document four key areas: - Patterns of migration : the socio-demographic characteristics of migrants, the routes of migration from Africa to Europe, and *the patterns of return migration and circulation. - Determinants of migration: looking at departure, but also return and circulation and taking into account the whole set of possible destinations. - Migration and Development: MAFE documents some of the socio-economic changes driven by international migration, looking as often as possible at both ends of the Afro-European migration system, at the individual level. - Migrations and Families: the data collected by the MAFE project can be used to study all sorts of interactions between family formation and international migration. Although the survey was primarily designed to study international migration, it can also be used to study other phenomena, especially in Africa: domestic mobility, labor market participation, family formation, etc. Comparable data was collected in both 3 sending and 6 destination countries, i.e. in sub-Saharan Africa and in Europe. The data are longitudinal - including retrospective migration, education, work and family histories for individuals - and multi-level - (with data collected at the individual and household levels, in addition of macro-contextual data). Please consult the official MAFE website for further details : https://mafeproject.site.ined.fr/en/

Probability: Stratified DR CONGO A three-stage stratified random sample was used. At the first stage, primary sampling units (census district) were selected randomly with varying probabilities. At the second stage, households were selected randomly in each of the selected primary sampling units (PSUs). At the third stage, individuals were selected within the households. a) Selection of primary sampling units (first stage) For DR Congo, the target area was the city of Kinshasa. In this city, a sampling frame of primary sampling units was prepared. No recent census was available, so the sampling frame of the 2007 DHS was used to select neighbourhoods, and in each selected neighbourhoods, a sampling frame of streets was prepared. In DR Congo, a sample of 29 neighbourhoods (out of 324) was selected randomly with a probability proportional to size, and 3 streets were selected randomly with a probability proportional to size in each neighbourhood (87 sampling units). The sample was stratified at the first stage in DR Congo (3 strata). b) Selection of households (second stage) A listing operation was carried out in each of the selected survey sites to prepare the sampling frame of households. The listing consisted in enumerating all the households in the selected sites, and in identifying whether these households included migrants of not. In DR Congo and Ghana, three categories of households were distinguished (households with return migrants, with migrants abroad, and without migrants). 7 households were selected in each of the 3 strata (if less than 7 households were available in one or several strata, the remaining households were selected in the other stratum). The sampling rate was higher in strata of households with migrants, in order to get a sufficient sample of such households. c) Selection of individuals (third stage) In each of the selected households, one or several respondents were selected among the eligible people (people aged between 25 and 75, and born in the origin country). In DR Congo and Ghana, all the return migrants and partners of migrants currently abroad were selected. In addition, one other eligible member was randomly selected. A special tool had been designed so that the interviewers could randomly select the people during the fieldwork. Two types of questionnaires were used in the departure countries: the household questionnaire and the individual life history questionnaire. - The first questionnaire was used among a representative sample of households in the target region. - The second questionnaire was used among a sample of individuals in the selected households, targeting both return migrants and non-migrants. The household questionnaire was thus used as the sampling frame for the selection of individual respondents. EUROPE The objective of the survey was to obtain a sample 'as representative as possible' of the African populations (Congolese, Ghanaian, Senegalese) in the destination countries (150 individuals per origin and destination country). The way the sample was constituted may vary across countries, but some common principles were respected: - The composition of the sample should be as close as possible to the population of (Congolese, Ghanaian, Senegalese) migrants in the country in terms of gender, geographic distribution, age, socio-economic category or occupation. - One exception: the sample should be gender balanced. Males and females should be equally represented in order to allow gender analyses. - Samples in origin and destination may be linked, but migrants with weak or no relationships at origin should not be excluded from the sample. - Both documented and undocumented migrants should be represented in the sample. As no suitable frame was available to select randomly individual respondents in five of the six European countries (Spain being the exception), it was decided to use quota sampling. In all the countries, the quotas were set by age and gender at least. In Belgium and the UK, the countries of MAFE Congo, the place of residence was used in the quotas. In Belgium, the whole country was covered, and quotas were set by provinces (11 provinces - within each province the sample was allocated to communes or groups of communes according to the number of Congolese migrants in these communes). In the United Kingdom, the surveys were concentrated in the London area and in the places where Congolese migrants were living. Randomness was also included in the samples in different ways. For instance, in Belgium, a random sample of places was selected according to the number of people of Congolese origin living in these places. Respondents were selected in these places. The combination of different recruitment methods also ensured that different types of persons had a non zero probability of being included in the sample. For instance, some respondents were recruited in public spaces (street, metro station, hairdresser...), others were randomly selected from list of volunteers identified in churches... Belgium - Target areas: Whole country - Sample size: 279 - Quotas: By age, gender and place of residence - Recruitment methods: Public spaces, migrant associations, churches, snowballing, phonebook, centers for asylum seekers, interviewers' contacts United Kingdom - Target areas: Whole country - Sample size: 149 - Quotas: By age, gender and place of residence - Recruitment methods: Public spaces, churches, snowballing, interviewers' contactsProbability.Stratified

Face-to-face interview: Paper-and-pencil (PAPI)Interview.FaceToFace.PAPI

Source https://www.zotero.org/groups/1909419/publications_non_ined_sur_enquetes_ined/items/collectionKey/ECMV2VKT
Metadata Access https://datacatalogue.cessda.eu/oai-pmh/v0/oai?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=oai_ddi25&identifier=0ed0700b7202557d8b5d0e8e32c6201aa855ac47c8467e0c0e58b8ae5f848a73
Publisher Institut national d'études démographiques (Ined)
Publication Year 2014
Funding Reference Seventh Framework Programme (Septième programme-cadre)
Rights Les fichiers diffusés dans le cadre de Quetelet-PROGEDO-Diffusion sont accessibles aux chercheurs français et étrangers, doctorants, post-doctorants, et étudiants de master à des fins de recherche, de production scientifique et dans certains cas d'enseignement. Toute utilisation commerciale est exclue. Les critères d'une finalité de recherche sont la production ou reproduction, dans un but de validation de connaissances nouvelles de portée générale. Les résultats sont publics et libres de diffusion.
OpenAccess true
Contact https://www.ined.fr/
Language French
Resource Type survey data
Discipline Economics; Social and Behavioural Sciences
Spatial Coverage Six European countries and three African countries participated in the MAFE surveys. Data collection was carried out in both sending countries in Africa and destination countries in Europe, in order to constitute transnational samples. For MAFE DR Congo, data was collected in the Demogratic Republic of Congo (African part), and Belgium and United Kingdom (European part).; Belgium; Congo, Democratic Republic of the; United Kingdom