An age model of marine sediment core is a prerequisite to start environmental studies of the past such as paleoceanography, paleoclimatology, and paleo-hazard studies. Here we report the comprehensive geochemical dataset used to determine the age model of marine sediment cores collected from Agulhas Ridge in the South Atlantic Ocean using piston coring and multiple-coring systems during the 30th Anniversary expeditions of R/V Hakuho Maru in 2019–2020 (KH19-6 Leg.4 PC10/MC14, water depth of 4,604 m). A whole 0.29-m-long multiple core (MC14) and the top 3.27 meter of 12.28-meter-long piston core (PC10) were dated. The dataset includes radiocarbon ages of planktonic foraminifera shells and oxygen isotopes of both planktonic (Globigerinoides bulloides, Globorotalia inflata) and benthic (Gyroidina soldanii) foraminifera shells. The results suggested that the top 7.5 kyr record was lost, the ages of 3.27 m depth below sea floor was ~140 kyr ago, and sedimentation rates were 0.9–5.5 kyr/cm.