Measures of Democracy 1810-2018

DOI

Aineisto sisältää vuodesta 1810 vuoteen 2018 joka vuodelle kolme erityyppistä muuttujaa, jotka Tatu Vanhanen on kehittänyt vuosien tutkimustyön tuloksena. Muuttujat ovat kilpailullisuus, osallistuminen ja demokratisoitumisindeksi. Kilpailullisuus-muuttujat kuvaavat pienempien puolueiden äänten prosenttimäärää parlamentti- tai presidentinvaaleissa. Kukin muuttuja on muodostettu vähentämällä suurimman puolueen (eniten ääniä saanut puolue) tai presidentinvaaleissa voittaneen kandidaatin puolueen saama äänten prosenttimäärä sadasta. Muuttujan laskemiseen on käytetty joko parlamentti- tai presidentinvaaleja niiden tärkeyden mukaan tai molempia antaen vaaleille painoarvot. Parlamenttipaikkojen jakautumaa on käytetty, jos äänien jakautumaa ei ole ollut saatavilla tai jos sen avulla on saatu realistisempi kuva. Jos parlamentin jäsenet valitaan äänestyksellä, mutta poliittisia puolueita ei sallita, on tulkittu, että yksi puolue on saanut kaikki äänet tai paikat. Jos puolueet eivät ole kiellettyjä, mutta silti yksittäiset ehdokkaat osallistuvat vaaleihin on tulkittu, että suurimman puolueen osuus ei ole yli 30 prosenttia. Osallistuminen-muuttujat kuvaavat äänestyprosenttia vaaleittain. Kunkin muuttujan prosenttimäärä on laskettu koko väestöstä. Välillisissä vaaleissa vain viimeisen äänestyksen äänet on otettu huomioon, ja tällöin ilman todellista valitsijamiesvaalia osallistumis-muuttuja saa arvon 0. Jos valitsijamiesvaali on järjestetty, on osallistumis-muuttuja laskettu sen äänimääristä ja -jakaumista. Kansanäänestys nostaa muuttujan arvoa viidellä prosenttiyksiköllä, jos se on kansallinen ja yhdellä prosenttiyksiköllä, jos se on osavaltiollinen. Kansanäänestykset nostavat muuttujan arvoa korkeintaan 30 prosenttiyksikköä vuodessa, ja koko muuttujan maksimiarvo on 70 prosenttia. Demokratisoitumisindeksi on muodostettu jakamalla kilpailullisuus- ja osallistuminen-muuttujien tulo sadalla.

The data contain three different variables, created by Tatu Vanhanen in his long-term research, for each year from 1810 to 2018. The variables in question are political competition, political participation and the index of democratization. The competition variable portrays the electoral success of smaller parties, that is, the percentage of votes gained by the smaller parties in parliamentary and/or presidential elections. The variable is calculated by subtracting from 100 the percentage of votes won by the largest party (the party which wins most votes) in parliamentary elections or by the party of the successful candidate in presidential elections. Depending on their importance, either parliamentary or presidential elections are used in the calculation of the variable, or both elections are used, with weights. If information on the distribution of votes is not available, or if the distribution does not portray the reality accurately, the distribution of parliamentary seats is used instead. If parliament members are elected but political parties are not allowed to take part in elections, it is assumed that one party has taken all votes or seats. In countries where parties are not banned but yet only independent candidates participate in elections, it is assumed that the share of the largest party is not over 30 percent. The political participation variable portrays the voting turnout in each election, and is calculated as the percentage of the total population who actually voted in the election. In the case of indirect elections, only votes cast in the final election are taken into account. If electors have not been elected by citizens, only the number of actual electors is taken into account, which means that the degree of participation drops to the value 0. If an election to choose electors has been held, the participation variable is calculated from the number and distribution of votes in that election. National referendums raise the variable value by five percent and state (regional) referendums by one percent for the year they are held. Referendums can add the degree of participation at maximum by 30 percent a year. The value of the combined degree of participation cannot be higher than 70 percent, even in cases where the sum of participation and referendums would be higher than 70. The index of democratization is formed by multiplying the competition and the participation variables and then dividing the outcome by 100.

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Identifier
DOI https://doi.org/10.32422/mv-cjir.1684
Source https://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi:fsd:T-FSD1289
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Metadata Access https://datacatalogue.cessda.eu/oai-pmh/v0/oai?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=oai_ddi25&identifier=03ded1151300b6565a2506fb16672466015bea2951798210e9a3b9dbec4f9cc6
Provenance
Creator Vanhanen, Tatu
Publisher Yhteiskuntatieteellinen tietoarkisto; Finnish Social Science Data Archive
Publication Year 2003
Rights Yhteiskuntatieteellinen tietoarkisto; Finnish Social Science Data Archive; Tietoarkiston ja aineiston luovuttajan tekemän sopimuksen mukaisesti.; In accordance with the agreement between FSD and the depositor.; Aineisto on (A) vapaasti käytettävissä ilman rekisteröitymistä (CC BY 4.0).; The dataset is (A) openly available for all users without registration (CC BY 4.0).
OpenAccess true
Contact https://www.fsd.tuni.fi/
Representation
Resource Type Kvantitatiivinen; Quantitative
Discipline Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Aquaculture; Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Aquaculture and Veterinary Medicine; Life Sciences; Social Sciences; Social and Behavioural Sciences; Soil Sciences
Spatial Coverage Afganistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Antigua ja Barbuda; Argentiina; Armenia; Australia; Itävalta; Azerbaidzan; Bahama; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Valko-Venäjä; Belgia; Belize; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia-Hertsegovina; Botswana; Brasilia; Brunei; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Myanmar (Burma); Burundi; Kambodza; Kamerun; Kanada; Kap Verde; Keski-Afrikan tasavalta; Tsad; Chile; Kiina; Kolumbia; Komorit; Kongo (Brazzaville); Kongo (Zaire); Costa Rica; Norsunluurannikko (Côte d'Ivoire); Kroatia; Kuuba; Kypros; Tsekki; Tsekkoslovakia; Tanska; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominikaaninen tasavalta; Itä-Timor (); Ecuador; Egypti; El Salvador; Päiväntasaajan Guinea; Eritrea; Viro; Etiopia; Fidzi; Suomi; Ranska; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Saksan demokraattinen tasavalta; Saksa; Saksan liittotasavalta; Ghana; Grenada; Kreikka; Guatemala; Guinea-Bissau; Guinea; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Unkari; Islanti; Intia; Indonesia; Iran; Irak; Irlanti; Israel; Italia; Jamaika; Japani; Jordania; Kazakstan; Kenia; Kiribati; Pohjois-Korea; Etelä-Korea; Kuwait; Kirgisia; Laos; Latvia; Libanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Liettua; Luxemburg; Makedonia; Madagaskar; Malawi; Malesia; Malediivit; Mali; Malta; Marshallinsaaret; Mauritania; Mauritius; Meksiko; Mikronesia; Moldova; Mongolia; Marokko; Mosambik; Montenegro; Namibia; Nepal; Alankomaat; Uusi-Seelanti; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Norja; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua-Uusi-Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Filippiinit; Puola; Portugali; Qatar; Romania; Venäjä; Neuvostoliitto; Ruanda; Saint Kitts ja Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent ja Grenadiinit; Länsi-Samoa; São Tomé ja Prínsipe; Saudi-Arabia; Senegal; Seychellit; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Salomonsaaret; Somalia; Serbia; Etelä-Afrikka; Espanja; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swazimaa; Ruotsi; Sveitsi; Syyria; Taiwan; Tadzikistan; Tansania; Thaimaa; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad ja Tobago; Tunisia; Turkki; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraina; Arabiemiirikunnat; Iso-Britannia; Yhdysvallat; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela; Vietnam; Pohjois-Vietnam; Etelä-Vietnam; Jemen; Pohjois-Jemen; Etelä-Jemen; Jugoslavia; Sambia; Zimbabwe; Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Myanmar (Burma); Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Congo (Brazzaville); Congo (Zaire); Costa Rica; Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire); Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Czechoslovakia; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; Gambia; German Democratic Republic GDR; Germany; West-Germany; Georgia; Ghana; Grenada; Greece; Guatemala; Guinea-Bissau; Guinea; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kiribati; North Korea; South Korea; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Macedonia; Luxembourg; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Marshall Islands; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Micronesia; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russia; Russia (USSR, Soviet Union); Rwanda; Western Samoa; Sao Tome and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syria; Taiwan; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela; Vietnam; North Vietnam; South Vietnam; Yemen; North Yemen; South Yemen; Yugoslavia; Zambia; Zimbabwe; Arabiemiirikunnat; Afganistan; Antigua ja Barbuda; Albania; Armenia; Angola; Argentiina; Itävalta; Australia; Azerbaidzan; Bosnia ja Hertsegovina; Barbados; Bangladesh; Belgia; Burkina Faso; Bulgaria; Bahrain; Burundi; Benin; Brunei; Bolivia; Brasilia; Bahama; Bhutan; Botswana; Valko-Venäjä; Belize; Kanada; Kongo (Zaire); Keski-Afrikan tasavalta; Kongo (Brazzaville); Sveitsi; Norsunluurannikko (Côte d'Ivoire); Chile; Kamerun; Kiina; Kolumbia; Costa Rica; Tsekkoslovakia; Kuuba; Kap Verde; Kypros; Tsekki; Saksa; Saksan demokraattinen tasavalta; Saksan liittotasavalta; Djibouti; Tanska; Dominica; Dominikaaninen tasavalta; Algeria; Ecuador; Viro; Egypti; Eritrea; Espanja; Etiopia; Suomi; Fidzi; Mikronesia; Ranska; Gabon; Iso-Britannia; Grenada; Georgia; Ghana; Gambia; Guinea; Päiväntasaajan Guinea; Kreikka; Guatemala; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Honduras; Kroatia; Haiti; Unkari; Indonesia; Irlanti; Israel; Intia; Irak; Iran; Islanti; Italia; Jamaika; Jordania; Japani; Kenia; Kirgisia; Kambodza; Kiribati; Komorit; Saint Kitts ja Nevis; Pohjois-Korea; Etelä-Korea; Kuwait; Kazakstan; Laos; Libanon; Saint Lucia; Sri Lanka; Liberia; Lesotho; Liettua; Luxemburg; Latvia; Libya; Marokko; Moldova; Madagaskar; Marshallinsaaret; Makedonia; Mali; Myanmar (Burma); Mongolia; Mauritania; Malta; Mauritius; Malediivit; Malawi; Meksiko; Malesia; Mosambik; Montenegro; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Nicaragua; Alankomaat; Norja; Nepal; Uusi-Seelanti; Oman; Panama; Peru; Papua-Uusi-Guinea; Filippiinit; Pakistan; Puola; Portugali; Paraguay; Qatar; Romania; Venäjä; Ruanda; Saudi-Arabia; Salomonsaaret; Seychellit; Serbia; Sudan; Ruotsi; Singapore; Slovenia; Slovakia; Sierra Leone; Senegal; Somalia; Suriname; São Tomé ja Prínsipe; Neuvostoliitto; El Salvador; Syyria; Swazimaa; Tsad; Togo; Thaimaa; Tadzikistan; Itä-Timor; Turkmenistan; Tunisia; Tonga; Turkki; Trinidad ja Tobago; Taiwan; Tansania; Ukraina; Uganda; Yhdysvallat; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Saint Vincent ja Grenadiinit; Venezuela; Etelä-Vietnam; Pohjois-Vietnam; Vietnam; Länsi-Samoa; Vanuatu; Etelä-Jemen; Jemen; Pohjois-Jemen; Jugoslavia; Etelä-Afrikka; Sambia; Zimbabwe; United Arab Emirates; Afghanistan; Antigua and Barbuda; Albania; Armenia; Angola; Argentina; Austria; Australia; Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Barbados; Bangladesh; Belgium; Burkina Faso; Bulgaria; Bahrain; Burundi; Benin; Brunei; Bolivia; Brazil; Bahamas; Bhutan; Botswana; Belarus; Belize; Canada; Congo (Zaire); Central African Republic; Congo (Brazzaville); Switzerland; Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire); Chile; Cameroon; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Czechoslovakia; Cuba; Cape Verde; Cyprus; Czech Republic; German Democratic Republic GDR; Germany; West-Germany; Djibouti; Denmark; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Algeria; Ecuador; Estonia; Egypt; Eritrea; Spain; Ethiopia; Finland; Fiji; Micronesia; France; Gabon; United Kingdom; Grenada; Georgia; Ghana; Gambia; Guinea; Equatorial Guinea; Greece; Guatemala; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Honduras; Croatia; Haiti; Hungary; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; India; Iraq; Iran; Iceland; Italy; Jamaica; Jordan; Japan; Kenya; Kyrgyzstan; Cambodia; Kiribati; Comoros; Saint Kitts and Nevis; North Korea; South Korea; Kuwait; Kazakhstan; Laos; Lebanon; Saint Lucia; Sri Lanka; Liberia; Lesotho; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Latvia; Libya; Morocco; Moldova; Madagascar; Marshall Islands; Macedonia; Mali; Myanmar (Burma); Mongolia; Mauritania; Malta; Mauritius; Maldives; Malawi; Mexico; Malaysia; Montenegro; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Nicaragua; The Netherlands; Norway; Nepal; New Zealand; Oman; Panama; Peru; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Pakistan; Poland; Portugal; Paraguay; Qatar; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Solomon Islands; Seychelles; Sudan; Sweden; Singapore; Slovenia; Slovakia; Sierra Leone; Senegal; Somalia; Serbia; Suriname; Sao Tome and Principe; Russia (USSR, Soviet Union); El Salvador; Syria; Swaziland; Chad; Togo; Thailand; Tajikistan; Timor-Leste; Turkmenistan; Tunisia; Tonga; Turkey; Trinidad and Tobago; Taiwan; Tanzania; Ukraine; Uganda; United States; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Venezuela; Vietnam; Western Samoa; Vanuatu; Yemen; Yugoslavia; South Africa; Zambia; Zimbabwe; North Vietnam; North Yemen; South Vietnam; South Yemen