Crowd Dynamics, Policing and Hooliganism at Euro 2004


Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.

This research project analysed the impact of public order policing strategies upon levels of 'hooliganism' at the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) European Championships in Portugal in June and July 2004 (Euro 2004). The project combined two methodological approaches, structured observation and ethnography, to collect data on police and fans during the event. The research was used to address three specific issues. Firstly, it aimed to understand the psychological processes and intergroup dynamics underlying both the presence and absence of 'disorder' in the context of international football. Secondly, it was used to evaluate the effectiveness of police strategies and tactics used to prevent crowd disorder, and finally, it attempted to develop the relationship between science and practice in the realm of public order by providing an empirically-based approach to the safety and security planning of future international football tournaments.

Main Topics:

Two kinds of data are included in the study: structured observation, and survey data. The structured observation data are in Excel format. Four observers attended each match during the Euro 2004 tournament. They collected information on behaviour and interaction of fans and police, numbers of samples, and site information. Data were collected at different locations and times (usually once every 15 minutes of the observation). The survey data file contains questionnaire information collected from England fans. Topics covered include relationship to fan group, sense of 'welcome' at the location, fan behaviour, perceptions of policing, transport, and assistance.

Purposive selection/case studies

Volunteer sample

Self-administered questionnaire


Metadata Access
Creator Stott, C., Keele University, School of Psychology
Publisher UK Data Service
Publication Year 2006
Funding Reference Economic and Social Research Council
Rights Copyright C. Stott; <p>The Data Collection is available to UK Data Service registered users subject to the <a href="" target="_blank">End User Licence Agreement</a>.</p>
OpenAccess true
Language English
Resource Type Numeric
Discipline Jurisprudence; Law; Social and Behavioural Sciences
Spatial Coverage Algarve; Portugal