Phosphate deposits which apparently formed during the Miocene climatic optimum are widespread on the Chatham Rise and Camp bell Plateau, and on seamounts in the north Tasman Sea. They formed under oxidising conditions by the phosphatisation of older or contemporaneous foraminiferal oozes (Campbell Plateau and Chatham Rise) and coral limestones (Tasman Sea). The phosphorites of the rise and plateau were formed where current activity was sufficiently strong to prevent normal sedimentation, and now form lag deposits. After the Miocene, phosphorite formation ceased and was followed by manganese oxide deposition where conditions were highly oxidising on the eastern Campbell Plateau and north Tasman seamounts, and by glauconite formation in the much less oxidising environments of the western Campbell Plateau and the Chat ham Rise. The manganese deposits are not volcanogenic, as was formerly thought, but formed by slow precipitation from well oxygenated sea water.
From 1983 until 1989 NOAA-NCEI compiled the NOAA-MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database from journal articles, technical reports and unpublished sources from other institutions. At the time it was the most extended data compilation on ferromanganese deposits world wide. Initially published in a propriatory format incompatible with present day standards it was jointly decided by AWI and NOAA to transcribe this legacy data into PANGAEA. This transfer is augmented by a careful checking of the original sources when available and the encoding of ancillary information (sample description, method of analysis...) not present in the NOAA-MMS database.
Supplement to: Glasby, Geoffrey P; Summerhayes, Colin P (1975): Sequential deposition of authigenic marine minerals around New Zealand: Paleoenvironmental significance. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 18(3), 477-490