Seawater carbonate chemistry, physiology, morphology of larval sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in a laboratory experiment, supplement to: Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Kelly, Morgan W; Evans, Tyler G; Hofmann, Gretchen E (2013): Temperature and CO2 additively regulate physiology, morphology and genomic responses of larval sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 280(1759), 20130155-20130155


Ocean warming and ocean acidification, both consequences of anthropogenic production of CO2, will combine to influence the physiological performance of many species in the marine environment. In this study, we used an integrative approach to forecast the impact of future ocean conditions on larval purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) from the northeast Pacific Ocean. In laboratory experiments that simulated ocean warming and ocean acidification, we examined larval development, skeletal growth, metabolism and patterns of gene expression using an orthogonal comparison of two temperature (13°C and 18°C) and pCO2 (400 and 1100 µatm) conditions. Simultaneous exposure to increased temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced larval metabolism and triggered a widespread downregulation of histone encoding genes. pCO2 but not temperature impaired skeletal growth and reduced the expression of a major spicule matrix protein, suggesting that skeletal growth will not be further inhibited by ocean warming. Importantly, shifts in skeletal growth were not associated with developmental delay. Collectively, our results indicate that global change variables will have additive effects that exceed thresholds for optimized physiological performance in this keystone marine species.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2014-04-09.

Related Identifier
Related Identifier
Metadata Access
Creator Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Kelly, Morgan W; Evans, Tyler G; Hofmann, Gretchen E
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2013
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported;
OpenAccess true
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset; Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 4571 data points
Discipline Earth System Research
Spatial Coverage (-119.984 LON, 34.414 LAT)
Temporal Coverage Begin 2011-11-01T00:00:00Z
Temporal Coverage End 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z