Does Encapsulation Protect Embryos from the Effects of Ocean Acidification? The Example of Crepidula fornicata, supplement to: Noisette, Fanny; Comtet, Thierry; Legrand, Erwann; Bordeyne, Francois; Davoult, Dominique; Martin, Sophie (2014): Does Encapsulation Protect Embryos from the Effects of Ocean Acidification? The Example of Crepidula fornicata. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e93021

DOI

Early life history stages of marine organisms are generally thought to be more sensitive to environmental stress than adults. Although most marine invertebrates are broadcast spawners, some species are brooders and/or protect their embryos in egg or capsules. Brooding and encapsulation strategies are typically assumed to confer greater safety and protection to embryos, although little is known about the physico-chemical conditions within egg capsules. In the context of ocean acidification, the protective role of encapsulation remains to be investigated. To address this issue, we conducted experiments on the gastropod Crepidula fornicata. This species broods its embryos within capsules located under the female and veliger larvae are released directly into the water column. C. fornicata adults were reared at the current level of CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) (390 µatm) and at elevated levels (750 and 1400 µatm) before and after fertilization and until larval release, such that larval development occurred entirely at a given pCO2. The pCO2 effects on shell morphology, the frequency of abnormalities and mineralization level were investigated on released larvae. Shell length decreased by 6% and shell surface area by 11% at elevated pCO2 (1400 µatm). The percentage of abnormalities was 1.5- to 4-fold higher at 750 µatm and 1400 µatm pCO2, respectively, than at 390 µatm. The intensity of birefringence, used as a proxy for the mineralization level of the larval shell, also decreased with increasing pCO2. These negative results are likely explained by increased intracapsular acidosis due to elevated pCO2 in extracapsular seawater. The encapsulation of C. fornicata embryos did not protect them against the deleterious effects of a predicted pCO2 increase. Nevertheless, C. fornicata larvae seemed less affected than other mollusk species. Further studies are needed to identify the critical points of the life cycle in this species in light of future ocean acidification.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne et al, 2014) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2014-06-17.

Identifier
DOI https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.833402
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093021
Related Identifier https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Metadata Access https://ws.pangaea.de/oai/provider?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=datacite4&identifier=oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.833402
Provenance
Creator Noisette, Fanny; Comtet, Thierry; Legrand, Erwann; Bordeyne, Francois; Davoult, Dominique; Martin, Sophie
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2014
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
OpenAccess true
Representation
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 6822 data points
Discipline Earth System Research
Spatial Coverage (-3.884 LON, 48.667 LAT)