Seawater carbonate chemistry and growth rates, physiology, and geneexpression of Heterosigma akashiwo, supplement to: Hennon, Gwenn M M; Williamson, Olivia M; Hernández Limón, María D; Haley, Sheean T; Dyhrman, Sonya T (2019): Non-linear Physiology and Gene Expression Responses of Harmful Alga Heterosigma akashiwo to Rising CO2. Protist, 170(1), 38-51


Heterosigma akashiwo is a raphidophyte known for forming ichthyotoxic blooms. In order to predict the potential impacts of rising CO2 on H. akashiwo it is necessary to understand the factors influencing growth rates over a range of CO2 concentrations. Here we examined the physiology and gene expression response of H. akashiwo to concentrations from 200 to 1000 ppm CO2. Growth rate data were combined from this and previous studies and fit with a CO2 limitation-inhibition model that revealed an apparent growth optimum around 600–800 ppm CO2. Physiological changes included a significant increase in C:N ratio at 800 ppm CO2 and a significant decrease in hydrogen peroxide concentration at 1000 ppm. Whole transcriptome sequencing of H. akashiwo revealed sharp distinctions in metabolic pathway gene expression between 600 and 800 ppm CO2. Hierarchical clustering by co-expression identified groups of genes with significant correlations to CO2 and growth rate. Genes with significant differential expression with CO2 included carbon concentrating mechanism genes such as beta-carbonic anhydrases and a bicarbonate transporter, which may underpin shifts in physiology. Genes involved in cell motility were significantly changed by both elevated CO2 and growth rate, suggesting that future ocean conditions could modify swimming behavior in this species.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2019) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2020-01-28.

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Metadata Access
Creator Hennon, Gwenn M M; Williamson, Olivia M; Hernández Limón, María D; Haley, Sheean T; Dyhrman, Sonya T
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2019
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
OpenAccess true
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 611 data points
Discipline Earth System Research