Seawater carbonate chemistry and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus in a laboratory experiment using artificial seawater, supplement to: Challener, Roberta C; McClintock, James B; Makowsky, Robert (2013): Effects of reduced carbonate saturation state on early development in the common edible sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus: implications for land-based aquaculture. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 25(2), 154-175


Land-based aquaculture facilities often utilize additional bicarbonate sources such as commercial sea salts that are designed to boost alkalinity in order to buffer seawater against reductions in pH. Despite these preventative measures, many facilities are likely to face occasional reductions in pH and corresponding reductions in carbonate saturation states due to the accumulation of metabolic waste products. We investigated the impact of reduced carbonate saturation states (Omega Ca, Omega Ar) on embryonic developmental rates, larval developmental rates, and echinoplutei skeletal morphometrics in the common edible sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus under high alkalinity conditions. Commercial artificial seawater was bubbled with a mixture of air and CO2 gas to reduce the carbonate saturation state. Rates of embryonic and larval development were significantly delayed in both the low and extreme low carbonate saturation state groups relative to the control at a given time. Although symmetry of overall skeletal body lengths was not affected, allometric relationships were significantly different between treatment groups. Larvae reared under ambient conditions had significantly greater postoral arm and overall body lengths relative to body lengths than larvae grown under extreme low carbonate saturation state conditions, indicating that extreme changes in the carbonate system affected not only developmental rates but also larval skeletal shape. Reduced rates of embryonic development and delayed and altered larval skeletal growth are likely to negatively impact larval culturing of L. variegatus in land-based, intensive culture situations where calcite and aragonite saturation states are lowered by the accumulation of metabolic waste products.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2013-10-31.

Related Identifier
Related Identifier
Metadata Access
Creator Challener, Roberta C; McClintock, James B; Makowsky, Robert
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2013
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported;
OpenAccess true
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset; Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 47361 data points
Discipline Earth System Research
Spatial Coverage (-85.400 LON, 29.750 LAT)
Temporal Coverage Begin 2009-08-05T00:00:00Z
Temporal Coverage End 2009-08-10T00:00:00Z