Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (8th- and 10th-Grade Surveys), 2019 MTF 2019 (8th/10th Grade) Archival Version


These surveys of 8th- and 10th-grade students are part of a series that explores changes in important values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of contemporary American youth. Students in each grade are randomly assigned to complete one of four questionnaires, each with a different subset of topical questions but containing a set of "core" questions on demographics and drug use. There are more than 500 variables across the questionnaires. Drugs covered by this survey include amphetamines (stimulants), barbiturates (tranquilizers), other prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, tobacco, smokeless tobacco, vaping, alcohol, inhalants, steroids, marijuana, hashish, LSD, hallucinogens, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, methamphetamine, and injectable drugs such as heroin. A supplemental data file (DS2) has been included this year by the Principal Investigators. This file includes 17 variables (6 administrative and 11 survey questions) and 93,034 cases from the years 2016 to 2018. These same 11 variables are already in the main data file (DS1) for 2019. The front section of the codebook provides details about each of the variables. There are also instructions on how to merge the supplemental data on to the main data files for the previous three years:

2018 data (ICPSR 37415); 2017 data (ICPSR 37183); 2016 data (ICPSR 36799);

A total of 28,818 students completed a survey in 2019. There were 14,223 8th graders and 14,595 10th graders. The number of students completing each form were:

Form 1: 9,578; Form 2: 9,595; Form 3: 4,825; Form 4: 4,820;

The split is approximately equal between forms completed by 8th graders and 10th graders. Beginning in 2019 half of the schools were randomly selected where students completed the survey via electronic tablet instead of the traditional paper-and-pencil version. Differences in responses by survey mode were negligible. Two new variables TABLET and RANDOMDRAW are included in the dataset. The variable TABLET recorded which format (paper or tablet) was administered to the student.The variable RANDOMDRAW gives information on where tablet-only questions were asked within the survey. Some students who utilized the tablet to complete the survey were asked additional questions not asked of others who also used the tablet. These variables contain unique missing value codes to account for cases where the questions were not administered to the student. The codebook provides additional details about the tablet survey module.

The downloadable data file contains a total of 628 variables. The original file provided by the Principal Investigators contained 598 variables (587 survey questions and 11 administrative variables). ICPSR created the other 30 variables of the final downloadable file to aid in analysis and utility.Not all of the 587 survey questions were asked on each form. There are 127 variables (22 percent) that are common among all 4 forms. Each variable label contains a notation of which forms asked that particular question. On average each form asked approximately 318 questions. All of the survey questions are categorical in nature. The majority of questions fall into one of seven types of response options.

Yes / No; Marked / Not Marked; Agree / Disagree scale (5 point); Disapproval scale (3 point); Risk scale (4 point); Frequency of days (6 point); Frequency of use (7 point);

ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..

Response Rates: The student response rates for the 2019 8th- and 10th-grade surveys were 89 percent and 86 percent, respectively.

Datasets:DS0: Study-Level FilesDS1: Main Data FileDS2: Supplemental Data File, 2016-2018

Enrolled 8th- and 10th-grade students in the contiguous United States. Smallest Geographic Unit: Census Region

A multistage area probability sample design was used involving three selection stages: (1) geographic areas or primary sampling units (PSUs), (2) schools (or linked groups of schools) within PSUs, and (3) students within sampled schools. Of the 72 PSUs, 8 were selected with certainty, 10 were selected with a probability of .50, and the remainder were selected using a probability based on their 2010 Census household count. Generally speaking, in schools with more than 350 students in the grade, a sample of students or classes was drawn. In schools with fewer than 350 students in a grade, all students were asked to participate unless logistical challenges required a sample be taken. For the 8th-grade survey, schools with fewer than 20 8th graders were generally excluded from the sample. For the 10th-grade survey, schools with fewer than 25 10th graders were excluded, with very few exceptions. Each school was asked to participate for two years so that each year one-half of the sample would be replaced. Schools refusing participation were replaced with similar schools in terms of geographic location, size, and type of school (e.g., public, private/Catholic, private/non-Catholic). The participation rate among schools has been between 66 and 80 percent since the inception of the study.

Funding institution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA001411).

on-site questionnaire

Metadata Access
Creator Miech, Richard A.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Patrick, Megan E.
Publisher Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Contributor United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Publication Year 2020
Rights Download; This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
OpenAccess true
Contact Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Language English
Resource Type Dataset; survey data
Discipline Social Sciences