Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study [United States] Special Collection Restricted-Use Files PATH Study (SCRUF) Version 3
The PATH Study was launched in 2011 to inform the Food and Drug Administration's regulatory activities under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (TCA). The PATH Study is a collaboration between the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Center for Tobacco Products (CTP), Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The study sampled over 150,000 mailing addresses across the United States to create a national sample of tobacco users and non-users. 45,971 adults and youth constitute the first (baseline) wave, Wave 1, of data collected by this longitudinal cohort study. These 45,971 adults and 9 to 11 sampled at Wave 1) make up the 53,178 participants that constitute the Wave 1 Cohort. Respondents are asked to complete an interview at each follow-up wave. Youth who turn 18 by the current wave of data collection are considered "aged-up adults" and are invited to complete the Adult Interview. Additionally, "shadow youth" are considered "aged-up youth" upon turning 12 years old, when they are asked to complete an interview after parental consent. At Wave 4, a probability sample of 14,098 adults, youth, and shadow youth ages 10 to 11 was selected from the civilian, noninstitutionalized population at the time of Wave 4. This sample was recruited from residential addresses not selected for Wave 1 in the same sampled PSUs and segments using similar within-household sampling procedures. This "replenishment sample" was combined for estimation and analysis purposes with Wave 4 adult and youth respondents from the Wave 1 Cohort who were in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population at the time of Wave 4. This combined set of Wave 4 participants, 52,731 participants in total, forms the Wave 4 Cohort. Please refer to the Restricted-Use Files User Guide that provides further details about children designated as "shadow youth" and the formation of the Wave 1 and Wave 4 Cohorts. Wave 4.5 is a special data collection for youth only who were aged 12 to 17 at the time of the Wave 4.5 interview. Wave 4.5 is the fourth annual follow-up wave for those who were members of the Wave 1 Cohort. For those who were sampled at Wave 4, Wave 4.5 is the first annual follow-up wave. Dataset 0001 (DS0001) contains the data from the Master Linkage file. This file contains 54 variables and 67,276 cases. The file provides a master list of every person's unique identification number and what type of respondent they were for each wave, starting with Wave 1. Dataset 1002 (DS1002) contains the data from the Wave 4.5 Youth (and Parent) Questionnaire. This file contains 1,617 variables and 13,131 cases. Datasets 1112, 1212, 1222, (DS1112, DS1212, and DS1222) are data files comprising the weight variables for Wave 4.5. The "all-waves" weight file contains weights for participants in the Wave 1 Cohort who completed a Wave 4.5 youth interview and completed interviews (if old enough to do so) or verified their information with the study (if not old enough to be interviewed) in Waves 1, 2, 3, and 4. There are two separate files with "single wave" weights: one for the Wave 1 Cohort and one for the Wave 4 Cohort. The "single-wave" weight file for the Wave 1 Cohort contains weights for youth who completed an interview in Wave 1 and in Wave 4.5, regardless of their participation in the intervening waves. The "single-wave" weight file for the Wave 4 Cohort contains weights for all Wave 4.5 youth interview respondents in the Wave 4 Cohort. Dataset 1402 (DS1402) contains the Wave 4.5 State Identifier data for Youth (and Parents) and has 5 variables and 13,131 cases. The State Identifier dataset includes PERSONID for linking the State Identifier to the questionnaire data and 3 variables designating the state (state FIPS, state abbreviation, and full name of the state). The State Identifier values in this dataset represent participants' state of residence at the time of Wave 4.5. Dataset 1503 (DS1503) contains data derived from responses to questionnaires in Wave 1, Wave 2, Wave 3, Wave 4, and Wave 4.5 indicating if participants had ever/never used various tobacco products as of the Wave 4.5 data collection period. This data file contains 26 variables for all 67,276 study participants as of the Wave 4.5 data collection. This file is provided for reference only to simplify the definitions of tobacco use variables in the Adult and Youth data files for subsequent waves.
The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study is a longitudinal cohort study on tobacco use behavior, attitudes and beliefs, and tobacco-related health outcomes among approximately adults and youth in the United States. The study's primary objectives are to:
Objective 1: Identify and explain between-person differences and within-person changes in tobacco-use patterns, including the rate and length of use by specific product type and brand, product/brand switching over time, uptake of new products, and dual- and poly-use of tobacco products (i.e., use of multiple products within the same time period and switching between multiple products).; Objective 2: Identify between-person differences and within-person changes in risk perceptions regarding harmful and potentially harmful constituents, new and emerging tobacco products, filters and other design features of tobacco products, packaging, and labeling; and identify other factors that may affect use, such as social influences and individual preferences.; Objective 3: Characterize the natural history of tobacco dependence, cessation, and relapse, including readiness and self-efficacy to quit, motivations for quitting, the number and length of quit attempts, and the length of abstinence related to various tobacco products.; Objective 4: Update the comprehensive baseline and subsequent waves of data on tobacco-use behaviors and related health conditions, including markers of exposure and tobacco-related disease processes identified from the collection and analysis of biospecimens, to assess between-person differences and within-person changes over time in health conditions potentially related to tobacco use, particularly with use of new and different tobacco products, including modified-risk tobacco products.; Objective 5: Assess associations between TCA-specific actions and tobacco-product use, risk perceptions and attitudes, use patterns, cessation outcomes, and tobacco-related intermediate endpoints (e.g., biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers related to disease). Analyses will attempt to account for other potential factors, such as demographics, local tobacco-control policies, and social, familial, and economic factors, that may influence the observed patterns.; Objective 6: Assess between-person differences and within-person changes over time in attitudes, behaviors, exposure to tobacco products, and related biomarkers among and within population sub-groups identified by such characteristics as race-ethnicity, gender, and/or age, or by risk factors, such as pregnancy or co-occurring substance use or mental health disorders.; Objective 7: To the extent to which sample sizes are sufficient, assess and compare samples of former and never users of tobacco products for between-person differences and within-person changes in relapse and uptake, risk perceptions, and indicators of tobacco exposure and disease processes.; Objective 8: Use data from the PATH Study's baseline and follow-up waves on tobacco-use behaviors, attitudes, and related health conditions, including potential markers of exposure and related disease processes identified from the analysis of biospecimens, to screen and subsample respondents for participation in formative and/or nested studies conducted during and after the PATH Study's waves of data and biospecimen collection.;
At Wave 1, the study sampled over 150,000 mailing addresses which, using a four-staged stratified sampling design, yielded a sample of 45,971 respondents (32,230 adults/ 13,651 youth) who completed a Wave 1 interview. Tobacco users and non-users who were at least 9 years old living a civilian, non-institutionalized setting were considered for participation during Wave 1. Youth who turn 18 by the next wave of data collection are considered "aged-up adults" and are invited to complete the Adult Interview. Additionally, 7,207 "shadow youth" (youth ages 9 to 11 sampled at Wave1) are considered "aged-up youth" upon turning 12 years old when they are asked to join the the study. Theses 53,178 participants form the Wave 1 Cohort.At Wave 4, a probability sample of 14,098 adults, youth, and shadow youth ags 10 to 11 was selected from the civilian, noninstitutionalized population at the time of Wave 4. this sample was recruited from close to 174,000 mailing addresses not selected for Wave 1, in the same sampled PSUs and segments using similar within-household sampling procedures. To meet the needs for the Wave 4 Cohort shadow sample, a randomly selected subset of the sampled addresses (115,500 or close to two-thirds of the addresses) were screened solely to identify shadow youth ages 10 to 11. The remaining addresses (close to 58,800) were screened for adults, youth, and shadow youth ages 10 to 11. These are referred to as the "SO" (shadow youth only) and "AYS" (Adults, youth, and shadow youth) replenishment samples, respectively. This "replenishment sample" was combined for estimation and analysis purposes with Wave 4 adult and youth respondents from the Wave 1 Cohort who were in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population (CNP) at the the time of Wave 4. This combined set of Wave 4 participants, 52,371 participants in total, forms the Wave 4 Cohort.The target population for the Wave 1 Cohort in Wave 4.5 is the resident population of the U.S. and ages 13-17 at the time of Wave 4.5 (other than those who were incarcerated) who were in the U.S. CNP. The target population for the Wave 4 Cohort in Wave 4.5 is the resident population of the U.S. and ages 12-17 at the time of Wave 4.5 (other than those who were incarcerated) who were in the U.S. CNP.The Youth/Parent file contains a single record of every youth who completed an interview in Wave 4.5. Parents who provided permission for their child to complete the Youth Interview were asked to complete a brief Parent Interview that contained questions about parental supervision, school performance, and tobacco use by youth. The Parent Interview is primarily an interview about the child(ren), not the parent. Almost all youth respondents had a parent or guardian complete the Parent Interview (over 99.0 percent). When multiple youth from the same household were selected to be in the study, the parent(s) completed separate interviews about each youth. If one parent completed multiple interviews, then questions asked about him or her were only asked once and skipped in the other interview(s). The parent's responses were then duplicated for the other child or children. A $2 incentive was mailed to all addresses sampled at Wave 1 and Wave 4 prior to screening. Adult respondents were paid $35 for their participation in Wave 1, Wave 2, Wave 3, and Wave 4. In Wave 1, Wave 2, Wave 3, Wave 4, and Wave 4.5, youth were paid $25 to complete the Youth Interview, and their parents were given $10 for each parent interview.
Parents and youths were asked about the following types of tobacco products:
Cigarettes; E-cigarettes/Electronic nicotine products; Cigars (traditional, cigarillos, filtered); Pipe tobacco; Hookah; Smokeless tobacco (snus pouches and other forms of smokeless tobacco); Dissolvable tobacco; Bidis and kreteks (youth only);
Although each section on tobacco products has some unique questions, most questions fit into one of the following categories:
Ever use; Recency of use; Frequency of use; Amount of use; Brands used; Purchase details; Use of flavored products; Harm and addictiveness; Reasons for use;
Additional topics include:
Poly use; Nicotine dependence; Packaging and health warnings; Risk and harm perceptions; Secondhand smoke exposure; Marketing and advertising; Media use; Demographics; Health; Psychosocial and mental health; Substance use; Cessation; Peer and family influences;
Most questions asked in the questionnaires are categorical. Other questions ask, for example, the age at which something occurred or the person's body measurements. Responses to these questions are numerical.
ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
Response Rates: The weighted Wave 4.5 youth interview response rate for the Wave 1 Cohort (conditional on Wave 1 participation) was 74.6 percent; the weighted Wave 4.5 youth interview response rate for the Wave 4 Cohort (conditional on Wave 4 participation) was 89.1 percent.
Please consult the Restricted-Use Files User Guide for further information regarding response rates.
Datasets:DS0: Study-Level FilesDS1: Master Linkage FileDS1002: Wave 4.5: Youth / Parent Questionnaire DataDS1112: Wave 4.5: Youth / Parent - Wave 1 Cohort All-Waves WeightsDS1212: Wave 4.5: Youth / Parent - Wave 1 Cohort Single-Wave WeightsDS1222: Wave 4.5: Youth / Parent - Wave 4 Cohort Single-Wave WeightsDS1402: Wave 4.5: Youth / Parent State Identifier DataDS1503: Wave 4.5: All Participants - Ever/Never Reference Data
The resident population of the United States who were ages 13-17 at the time of Wave 4.5 (other than those who were incarcerated) and part of the civilian, non-institutionalized household population of the United States at the time of Wave 1 (Wave 1 Cohort); the resident population of the United States who were ages 12-17 at the time of Wave 4.5 (other than those who were incarcerated) and part of the civilian, non-institutionalized household population of the United States at the time of Wave 4 (Wave 4 Cohort). Smallest Geographic Unit: None
A four-stage stratified area probability sample design was used in the PATH Study, with a two-phase design for sampling adults at the final stage. At the first stage, a stratified sample of geographical primary sampling units (PSUs) was selected, in which a PSU is a county or group of counties. For the second stage, within each selected PSU, smaller geographical segments were formed and then a sample of these segments was drawn. At the third stage, the sampling frame consisted of the residential addresses located in these segments. The fourth stage selected adults and youth from the sampled households identified at these addresses, with varying sampling rates for adults by age, race, and tobacco use status. Adults were sampled in two phases - Phase 1 sampling used information provided in the household screener and Phase 2 sampling used information provided by the adult in the Phase 2 screener at the beginning of the Adult instrument. Please consult the Restricted-Use Files User Guide for additional details about the sampling. There was no additional sampling for Wave 4.5. Wave 4.5 is a special data collection in which PATH Study participants ages 12 to 17 at the time of Wave 4.5 were interviewed.
2021-02-23 Wave 4.5 Youth/Parent State Identifier Data and Wave 4.5 Ever/Never data files were added to the collection.2020-06-24 The user guide for this study has been updated and online variable search capabilities have been added for this study. Funding institution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. Center for Tobacco Products.
audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI)
computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)
- chewing tobacco
- dissolvable tobacco
- e cigarettes
- electronic nicotine...
- filtered cigars
- health warnings
- mental health
- nicotine addiction
- nicotine dependence
- physical health
- pipe tobacco
- second hand smoke
- sexual preference
- smokeless tobacco
- smoking cessation
- snus pouches
- social media
- substance abuse
- tobacco products
- tobacco use
|Creator||United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse; United States Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. Center for Tobacco Products|
|Publisher||Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research|
|Contributor||United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse; United States Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. Center for Tobacco Products|
|Rights||Delivery; One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.|
|Contact||Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research|
|Resource Type||Dataset; survey data|