Response of benthic foraminifera to ocean acidification in their natural sediment environment: a long-term culturing experiment, supplement to: Haynert, Kristin; Schönfeld, Joachim; Schiebel, Ralf; Wilson, Brent; Thomsen, Jörn (2014): Response of benthic foraminifera to ocean acidification in their natural sediment environment: a long-term culturing experiment. Biogeosciences, 11(6), 1581-1597

DOI

Calcifying foraminifera are expected to be endangered by ocean acidification; however, the response of a complete community kept in natural sediment and over multiple generations under controlled laboratory conditions has not been constrained to date. During 6 months of incubation, foraminiferal assemblages were kept and treated in natural sediment with pCO2-enriched seawater of 430, 907, 1865 and 3247 µatm pCO2. The fauna was dominated by Ammonia aomoriensis and Elphidium species, whereas agglutinated species were rare. After 6 months of incubation, pore water alkalinity was much higher in comparison to the overlying seawater. Consequently, the saturation state of Omega calc was much higher in the sediment than in the water column in nearly all pCO2 treatments and remained close to saturation. As a result, the life cycle (population density, growth and reproduction) of living assemblages varied markedly during the experimental period, but was largely unaffected by the pCO2 treatments applied. According to the size-frequency distribution, we conclude that foraminifera start reproduction at a diameter of 250 µm. Mortality of living Ammonia aomoriensis was unaffected, whereas size of large and dead tests decreased with elevated pCO2 from 285 µm (pCO2 from 430 to 1865 µatm) to 258 µm (pCO2 3247 µatm). The total organic content of living Ammonia aomoriensis has been determined to be 4.3% of CaCO3 weight. Living individuals had a calcium carbonate production rate of 0.47 g/m2/a, whereas dead empty tests accumulated a rate of 0.27 g /m2/a. Although Omega calc was close to 1, approximately 30% of the empty tests of Ammonia aomoriensis showed dissolution features at high pCO2 of 3247 µatm during the last 2 months of incubation. In contrast, tests of the subdominant species, Elphidium incertum, stayed intact. Our results emphasize that the sensitivity to ocean acidification of the endobenthic foraminifera Ammonia aomoriensis in their natural sediment habitat is much lower compared to the experimental response of specimens isolated from the sediment.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne et al, 2014) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2014-05-27.

Identifier
DOI https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.833014
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-1581-2014
Related Identifier https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Metadata Access https://ws.pangaea.de/oai/provider?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=datacite4&identifier=oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.833014
Provenance
Creator Haynert, Kristin; Schönfeld, Joachim; Schiebel, Ralf; Wilson, Brent; Thomsen, Jörn
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2014
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
OpenAccess true
Representation
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 30268 data points
Discipline Earth System Research
Spatial Coverage (10.211 LON, 54.531 LAT)
Temporal Coverage Begin 2011-04-01T00:00:00Z
Temporal Coverage End 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z