Seawater carbonate chemistry and swimming behaviors of the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo in a laboratory experiment, supplement to: Kim, Hyewon; Spivack, Arthur J; Menden-Deuer, Susanne (2013): pH alters the swimming behaviors of the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo: Implications for bloom formation in an acidified ocean. Harmful Algae, 26, 1-11


We investigated the effects of pH on movement behaviors of the harmful algal bloom causing raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo. Motility parameters from >8000 swimming tracks of individual cells were quantified using 3D digital video analysis over a 6-h period in 3 pH treatments reflecting marine carbonate chemistry during the pre-industrial era, currently, and the year 2100. Movement behaviors were investigated in two different acclimation-to-target-pH conditions: instantaneous exposure and acclimation of cells for at least 11 generations. There was no negative impairment of cell motility when exposed to elevated PCO2 (i.e., low pH) conditions but there were significant behavioral responses. Irrespective of acclimation condition, lower pH significantly increased downward velocity and frequency of downward swimming cells (p < 0.001). Rapid exposure to lower pH resulted in 9% faster downward vertical velocity and up to 19% more cells swimming downwards (p < 0.001). Compared to pH-shock experiments, pre-acclimation of cells to target pH resulted in ~30% faster swimming speed and up to 46% faster downward velocities (all p 2-fold greater than in pH-shock treatments (2.2 × 105 µm2/s vs. 8.4 × 104 µm2/s). Predictions from an advection-diffusion model, suggest that as PCO2 increased the fraction of the population aggregated at the surface declined, and moved deeper in the water column. Enhanced downward swimming of H. akashiwo at low pH suggests that these behavioral responses to elevated PCO2 could reduce the likelihood of dense surface slick formation of H. akashiwo through reductions in light exposure or growth independent surface aggregations. We hypothesize that the HAB alga's response to higher PCO2 may exploit the signaling function of high PCO2 as indicative of net heterotrophy in the system, thus indicative of high predation rates or depletion of nutrients.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2014-03-21.

Related Identifier
Related Identifier
Metadata Access
Creator Kim, Hyewon; Spivack, Arthur J; Menden-Deuer, Susanne
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2013
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported;
OpenAccess true
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset; Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 1389 data points
Discipline Earth System Research