Comparison of fecal indicators with pathogenic bacteria and rotavirus in rural Bangladesh groundwater, supplement to: Ferguson, Andrew; Layton, Alice; Mailloux, Brian; Culligan, Patricia; Williams, Daniel; Smartt, Abby; Sayler, Gary; Feighery, John; McKay, Larry; Knappett, Peter; Alexandrova, Ekaterina; Arbit, Talia; Emch, Michael; Escamilla, Veronica; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Alam, Md Jahangir; Streatfield, P Kim; Yunus, Mohammad; van Geen, Alexander (2012): Comparison of fecal indicators with pathogenic bacteria and rotavirus in rural Bangladesh groundwater. Science of the Total Environment, 431, 314-322

DOI

Groundwater is routinely analyzed for fecal indicators but direct comparisons of fecal indicators to the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens are rare. This study was conducted in rural Bangladesh where the human population density is high, sanitation is poor, and groundwater pumped from shallow tubewells is often contaminated with fecal bacteria. Five indicator microorganisms (E. coli, total coliform, F+RNA coliphage, Bacteroides and human-associated Bacteroides (HuBacteroides)) and various environmental parameters were compared to the direct detection of waterborne pathogens by quantitative PCR in groundwater pumped from 50 tubewells. Rotavirus was detected in groundwater filtrate from the largest proportion of tubewells (40%), followed by Shigella (10%), Vibrio (10%), and pathogenic E. coli (8%). Spearman rank correlations and sensitivity-specificity calculations indicate that some, but not all, combinations of indicators and environmental parameters can predict the presence of pathogens. Culture-dependent fecal indicator bacteria measured on a single date did not predict bacterial pathogens, but annually averaged monthly measurements of culturable E. coli did improve prediction for total bacterial pathogens. F+RNA coliphage were neither correlated nor sufficiently sensitive towards rotavirus, but were predictive of bacterial pathogens. A qPCR-based E. coli assay was the best indicator for the bacterial pathogens, rotavirus and all pathogens combined. Since groundwater cannot be excluded as a significant source of diarrheal disease in Bangladesh and neighboring countries with similar characteristics, the need to develop more effective methods for screening tubewells with respect to microbial contamination is necessary.

Precision of latitude/longitude is reduced to protect household privacy.

Identifier
DOI https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.774444
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.05.060
Metadata Access https://ws.pangaea.de/oai/provider?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=datacite4&identifier=oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.774444
Provenance
Creator Ferguson, Andrew; Layton, Alice; Mailloux, Brian; Culligan, Patricia; Williams, Daniel; Smartt, Abby; Sayler, Gary; Feighery, John; McKay, Larry; Knappett, Peter; Alexandrova, Ekaterina; Arbit, Talia; Emch, Michael; Escamilla, Veronica; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Alam, Md Jahangir; Streatfield, P Kim; Yunus, Mohammad; van Geen, Alexander
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Publication Year 2012
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
OpenAccess true
Representation
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset; Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 1582 data points
Discipline Earth System Research
Spatial Coverage (90.644W, 23.364S, 90.651E, 23.373N); Bangladesh