Bullying and Violence on the School Bus: A Mixed-Methods Assessment of Behavioral Management Strategies, United States, 2016-2018 Archival Version


These data are part of NACJD's Fast Track Release and are distributed as they were received from the data depositor. The files have been zipped by NACJD for release, but not checked or processed except for the removal of direct identifiers. Users should refer to the accompanying readme files for a brief dscription of the files available with this collection and consult the investigator(s) if further information is needed. The qualitative data are not available as part of the data collection at this time. Numerous high-profile events involving student victimization on school buses have raised critical questions regarding the safety of school-based transportation for children, the efforts taken by school districts to protect students on buses, and the most effective transportation-based behavioral management strategies for reducing misconduct. To address these questions, a national web-based survey was administered to public school district-level transportation officials throughout the United States to assess the prevalence of misconduct on buses, identify strategies to address misconduct, and describe effective ways to reduce student misbehavior on buses. Telephone interviews were also conducted with a small group of transportation officials to understand the challenges of transportation-based behavioral management, to determine successful strategies to create safe and positive school bus environments, and to identify data-driven approaches for tracking and assessing disciplinary referrals. The collection includes 10 Stata data files:

BVSBS_analysis file.dta (n=2,595; 1058 variables); Title Crosswalk File.dta (n=2,594; 3 variables); Lessons Learned and Open Dummies.dta (n=1,543; 200 variables); CCD dataset.dta (n=12,494; 89 variables); BVSB_REGION.dta (n=4; 3 variables); BVSB_SCHOOLS.dta (n=3; 3 variables); BVSB_STUDENTS.dta (n=3; 3 variables); BVSB_URBAN.dta (n=8; 3 variables); BVSB_WHITE.dta (n=3; 3 variables); FINALRAKER.dta (n=2,595; 2 variables);

The study addressed five core research questions:

What is the nature and extent of behavioral problems on school buses and what types of districts have the most problems?; How do school districts attempt to reduce misconduct on buses, and what are commonly-used strategies?; What strategies do transportation officials perceive to be the most effective for reducing misconduct on buses, and are these perceptions contingent on district characteristics (e.g., size, urbanicity)?; What methods do districts use to assess the effectiveness of behavioral management strategies they implement on school buses?; What are key challenges faced by transportation officials in establishing safe and positive school bus environments?;

The mixed-methods study was conducted in three phases:

In Phase I, a national web-based survey was administered to district-level public school transportation officials to gather information about the nature and extent of student misconduct on buses, uncover the variety and prevalence of transportation-based behavioral management strategies, and identify the strategies or approaches that officials perceive to be the most effective for reducing student misconduct on buses.; In Phase II, thirty-nine telephone interviews were conducted with district-level transportation officials to understand the challenges of behavioral management, processes by which strategies are implemented, and the conditions under which different approaches are most successful for promoting safe school bus environments. The interviews were also used to understand how districts track student disciplinary referrals and to what extent they use data-driven approaches to assess the effectiveness of their efforts.; In Phase III, survey and interview results were systematically analyzed to identify themes related to student misconduct and concerted efforts to regulate student behavior, and to design recommendations that school systems can use to strengthen their transportation-based behavioral management programs.;

BVSBS_analysis file.dta: school district demographics, use of buses, behavior management strategies for the seven types of bullying, violence, or misbehavior by students, supplementary information on student behaviors while on the bus, demographics of transportation official respondent, and sampling weight Title Crosswalk File.dta: demographics of transportation official respondent, title used by respondent, and title2 aggregated by P.I Lessons Learned and Open Dummies.dta: effective and ineffective strategies, challenges of student transportation, observations about student misbehavior, miscellaneous information, and inapplicable information CCD dataset.dta: district size and number of schools and students, education offerings, district urbanicity, and district racial composition BVSB_REGION.dta: region of United States: northeast, midwest, south, west, and weighting strategy BVSB_SCHOOLS.dta: number of schools in the district, and weighting strategy BVSB_STUDENTS.dta: number of students in the district, and weighting strategy BVSB_URBAN.dta: urbanicity of district, and weighting strategy BVSB_WHITE.dta: percentage of white students in the student body, and weighting strategy FINALRAKER.dta: unique identifier, and sampling weight

Presence of Common Scales: Likert-type scales were used.

Response Rates: 21 percent

Datasets:DS1: Dataset

Transportation officials employed by public school districts in the United States Smallest Geographic Unit: State

A list of 10,384 public school transportation officials and superintendents was merged with the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Common Core Data (CCD) dataset, which provided information on district-level characteristics such as size, urbanicity, and racial composition. The CCD increased the sampling frame to 12,494 districts.

Funding institution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2015-CK-BX-0006).

telephone interview

web-based survey

DOI https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR37043
Metadata Access https://www.da-ra.de/oaip/oai?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=oai_dc&identifier=oai:oai.da-ra.de:663451
Creator Trudeau, James
Publisher Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Contributor United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Publication Year 2018
Rights Delivery; One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
OpenAccess true
Contact Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Language English
Resource Type Dataset; survey data
Discipline Social Sciences