The Iowa Adoption Studies, 1975-2008


The Iowa Adoption Studies were conducted between 1975 and 2008. The group of studies consist of 5 independent waves of data collection each of which examined genetic (biological) and environmental influences on psychopathology. The adoption paradigm allowed separation of genetic and environmental influences on behavior, as well as joint influences due to gene x environment interaction. Adoptees were interviewed about lifetime psychopathology including substance abuse and dependence, antisocial personality, and mood disorders. A follow-up study was conducted from 2000-2004 that recruited all previous participants and natural offspring of the adoptive parents when available. Standardized psychiatric assessments were administered along with measures of personality disorders and traits, retrospective reports on childhood experiences with adoptive parents, and current symptomatology. An extensive neurocognitive assessment was conducted on a subset of participants who had standardized school achievement scores. The goal of this last wave of assessment was to evaluate the influence of substance use on mid-life cognition and health.The respondents were assessed using a number of different surveys over the study period. The following describes the notable variables as well as descriptions of the surveys included in the dataset.The first variables in the dataset identify sibling pairs and provides data on whether the respondents' biological parents suffered from mental health or substance abuse issues. Next birth records are provided that give basic information about the health of the person when he or she was born. This information is followed by the survey results of "The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality" (SNAP) as well as variables that reflect the diagnosis of personality disorders and nonadaptive personality traits based on the SNAP survey responses.The next section includes responses from "The Iowa Personality Disorder Screen," a quick personality disorder screen developed in 1999 intended for use in clinical and research settings.Next, responses to Pearson Assessments "Brief symptoms inventory" are included as well as the scores calculated based on these survey responses. The results of this survey assess the mental state of the patient including scales on Somatization, Obsessive-Compulsive, Interpersonal Sensitivity, Depression, Anxiety, Hostility, Phobic Anxiety, Paranoid Ideation and Psychoticism.The respondents also completed the "Buss-Durkee Hostility Questionnaire" and were assessed on measure regarding the following hostility traits: negativism, resentment, indirect hostility, assault, suspicion, irritability and verbal hostility.Reponses to the "The Social Provisions Scale" survey are also included. The purpose of this survey is to assess the relationship the respondents have to other people. The 6 social provisions assessed include: guidance, reliable alliance, reassurance of worth, attachment, social integration, and opportunity for nurturance."The Parental Bonding Instrument" instrument was utilized to assess the respondents' relationships to their mothers and fathers.A series of cognitive tests were administered to respondents. ICPSR is unable to provide the survey instruments used in the cognitive test due to copy write issues. These tests include:Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT)North American Adult Reading Test (NAART)Rey Figure and Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial (RCFT)Shipley Institute of Living Scale (SILS)Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT)Tower of Hanoi (TofH)Comprehensive Trailmaking Test (CTMT)Weschler Adult Intelligence Test (WAIS)Weschler Memory Test (WMS)The dataset also includes respondents' results of the Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)Scores from the "Iowa Test of Basic Skills," a test of academic achievement that evaluates students knowledge in subjects including, mathematics, reading comprehension, and science, are included in the dataset. Respondents are evaluated in grades 4, 8 and 11.The final section of the dataset includes two waves of the "Semi Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism," a survey intended to assess the physical, psychological, and social manifestations of alcohol abuse. These survey responses make up the bulk of the dataset and include variables on a variety of topics including: demographics, medical history, substance use, eating disorders, depression, dysthymia, mania, ASP, suicide, PTSD, generalized anxiety disorder, OCD, social phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, home environment, gambling, and ADHD. Substances use investigated includes alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, sedatives, stimulants, cocaine, opiates, solvents, hallucinogens, and other drugs.This dataset includes 934 cases and 9,370 variables.

The purpose of this study is to examine genetic (biological) and environmental influences on psychopathology and substance abuse.

Each original study recruited case and control adoptees adopted by biologically unrelated adoptive parents. Control adoptees were matched 1:1 on sex and age of a case adoptee at the time of the original study. Case definitions differed by study, although all studies collected information on alcohol problems and antisocial behaviors. The earliest study included a broad spectrum of psychiatric problems not included in this dataset, e.g., depression, mental retardation. The second study focused on antisocial behaviors. The third and fourth studies focused on alcohol problems. The final study focused on drug problems and antisocial or criminal behaviors.

Response Rates: 80%

Presence of Common Scales: Semi-structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism, Schedule for Normal and Abnormal Personality, Brief Symptom Inventory

Datasets: DS0: Study-Level Files DS1: ID Master DS2: NIDA-3: Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcohol DS3: NIDA-3: Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcohol- Diagnosis Data DS4: NIDA-3: The Schedule for Normal and Abnormal Personality DS5: NIDA-3: The Schedule for Normal and Abnormal Personality - Diagnosis Data DS6: NIDA-3: The Schedule for Normal and Abnormal Personality - Traits DS7: NIDA-3: The Iowa Personality Disorder Screen DS8: NIDA-3: Buss-Durkee Hostility Questionaire DS9: NIDA-3: The Parental Bonding Instrument - Father DS10: NIDA-3: The Parental Bonding Instrument - Mother DS11: NIDA-3: The Social Provision Scale DS12: NIDA-3: Brief Symptoms Inventory DS13: NIDA-3:Brief Symptoms Inventory - Scores DS14: NIDA-4: Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcohol - Modified DS15: NIDA-4: Cognitive Data DS16: NIDA-4: Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) DS17: NIDA-4: Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) DS18: NIDA-4: Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS/ITED) DS19: NIDA-4: Birth Characteristics

Adopted Adults.

The sample is a sampling of adopted adults with identified psychopathology in a birth parent and matched adopted adults with no psychopathology in either birth parent.

face-to-face interview; mail questionnaire; self-enumerated questionnaire; telephone interview

Metadata Access
Creator Caspers, Kristin
Publisher ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research
Publication Year 2020
Rights Download; One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
OpenAccess true
Contact ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research
Resource Type Dataset; medical records, survey data
Discipline History;Medieval History