Distribution of benthic and planktic foraminifera in surface sediments of the Indian and Pakistan continental margin, Arabian Sea, supplement to: Zobel, B (1973): Biostratigraphische Untersuchungen an Sedimenten des indisch-pakistanischen Kontinentalrandes (Arabisches Meer). Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, C12, 9-73

DOI

During the Indian Ocean Expedition of the German research vessel "Meteor" and the following cruise with the Pakistani fishing vessel "Machhera" in February and March 1965, sediments were sampled from the shelf, continental slope and the Arabian Basin off Pakistan and India. The biostratigraphic studies are based on sedimentary material from 24 sediment cores up to 480 cm long and 100 grab samples.The faunal residues of the > 160 µ fraction (chiefly foraminifera and pteropods) were determined and counted in order to get an idea of the climatic conditions during the Late Quaternary of this region. Biostratigraphic correlations of these Late Quaternary deposits are only possible if the thanatocoenosis of the surface sediments are well known. The analysis of the benthonic foraminiferal populations resulted in the definition of several foraminiferal facies. The following sequence of forarniniferal facies, named after their most characteristic members, can be distinguished from the shelf to the deep-sea:1. Ammonia-Florilus facies ; 2. Ammonia-Cancris facies; 3. Cassidulina-Cibicides facies; 4. Uvigerina-Cassidulina facies ; 5. Buliminacea facies ; 6. deepwater facies, partly with Bulimina aculeata or with Nonionidae. On the upper continental slope there is a zone extremely poor in benthonic foraminifera. In this water depth the oxygen minimum layer (0.05-0.02 ml/l) of the water column reaches the slope.Almost no connection can be observed between the living and the dead foraminiferal population of the same sample.The regional distribution of the planktonic foraminifera from plankton tows as well as from the surface sediments shows marked differences in the species composition of faunas from different regions within the area of investigation. That depends on oceanographic conditions such as upwelling, dissolution of carbonate at great depths etc.Based on the results of faunal analysis of samples from the recent sea-floor, a biostratigraphic subdivision of the sediments in the cores was established. The following biostratigraphically defined sections could be distinguished from the top of the sediment cores downwards : 1. Relatively cool climatic conditions are reflected by the foraminiferaof the uppermost core sections. 2. The next section is characterized by much warmer conditions (Holocene climatic optimum). The C-14 ages of this interval range from 4000 to 10 000 years B.P. according to different authors. C-14 dates on the material investigated do not give reliable clues. 3. Foraminiferal populations adapted to much colder conditions can be observed in the underlying core section. The boundary between the warm climate reflected by the foraminifera of section 2 and the cold climate (section 3) is relatively sharp. It can be correlated from core to core over the whole area investigated. The cold climate sediments of section 3 are underlain by different cool-, warm- and cold-climate sediments which can only be correlated over very short distances.Since it appears certain that the last really cold conditions ended earlier in the Arabian Sea and its vicinity than in Europe it is recommended not to use the European stratigraphic terms for the Quaternary.Because of the lack of reliable absolute sediment ages for the cores no exact sedimentation rates can be given. According to rough estimates, however, the rates are 1-2 cm/1000 years in the deep basin and up to 40 cm/1000 years on the upper continental slope. Sedimentation rates are always larger near the mouth of the Indus-River than off South India at stations of about the same water depth.Planktonic gastropods (mainly pteropods) cannot be used for biostratigraphic purposes in the region under consideration. All of them seem to be displaced from the shelf. Their distribution there is given in.

Identifier
DOI https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.548416
Metadata Access https://ws.pangaea.de/oai/provider?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=datacite4&identifier=oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.548416
Provenance
Creator Zobel, B
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Publication Year 1973
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
OpenAccess true
Representation
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Collection of Datasets
Format application/zip
Size 3 datasets
Discipline Earth System Research
Spatial Coverage (56.800W, 8.717S, 75.850E, 26.900N); Persian Gulf; Eastern Arabian Sea; Northern Arabian Sea; Arabian Sea
Temporal Coverage Begin 1965-02-01T00:00:00Z
Temporal Coverage End 1965-04-14T00:00:00Z