(Table S2) The reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST) over the eastern equatorial Pacific, supplement to: Zhang, Yancheng; Zhang, Xu; Chiessi, Cristiano Mazur; Mulitza, Stefan; Zhang, Xiao; Lohmann, Gerrit; Prange, Matthias; Behling, Hermann; Zabel, Matthias; Govin, Aline; Sawakuchi, André Oliveira; da Cruz Junior, Francisco William; Wefer, Gerold (2016): Equatorial Pacific forcing of western Amazonian precipitation during Heinrich Stadial 1. Scientific Reports, 6, 35866

DOI

Abundant hydroclimatic evidence from western Amazonia and the adjacent Andes documents wet conditions during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1, 18-15 ka), a cold period in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. This precipitation anomaly was attributed to a strengthening of the South American summer monsoon due to a change in the Atlantic interhemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. However, the physical viability of this mechanism has never been rigorously tested. We address this issue by combining a thorough compilation of tropical South American paleorecords and a set of atmosphere model sensitivity experiments. Our results show that the Atlantic SST variations alone, although leading to dry conditions in northern South America and wet conditions in northeastern Brazil, cannot produce increased precipitation over western Amazonia and the adjacent Andes during HS1. Instead, an eastern equatorial Pacific SST increase (i.e., 0.5-1.5 °C), in response to the slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during HS1, is crucial to generate the wet conditions in these regions. The mechanism works via anomalous low sea level pressure over the eastern equatorial Pacific, which promotes a regional easterly low-level wind anomaly and moisture recycling from central Amazonia towards the Andes.

Identifier
DOI https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.867293
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1038/srep35866
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001208
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1002/2015PA002816
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.10.012
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05222
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1072376
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1029/2008PA001593
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.11.010
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05578
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1029/2008PA001620
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3692
Related Identifier https://store.pangaea.de/Publications/Zhang-etal_2016/Supplementary_Tables_srep35866-s2.xls
Metadata Access https://ws.pangaea.de/oai/provider?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=datacite4&identifier=oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.867293
Provenance
Creator Zhang, Yancheng; Zhang, Xu; Chiessi, Cristiano Mazur; Mulitza, Stefan; Zhang, Xiao; Lohmann, Gerrit; Prange, Matthias; Behling, Hermann; Zabel, Matthias; Govin, Aline; Sawakuchi, André Oliveira; da Cruz Junior, Francisco William; Wefer, Gerold
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Publication Year 2016
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
OpenAccess true
Representation
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 88 data points
Discipline Earth System Research
Spatial Coverage (-92.398W, -3.990S, -81.310E, 8.206N); Equatorial East Pacific; North Pacific Ocean; Cocos Ridge; South Pacific Ocean
Temporal Coverage Begin 1963-04-05T00:00:00Z
Temporal Coverage End 2002-06-23T05:05:00Z