Effect of increased pCO2 level on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck) larvae, supplement to: Andersen, Sissel; Grefsrud, E S; Harboe, T (2013): Effect of increased pCO2 level on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck) larvae. Biogeosciences, 10(10), 6161-6184

DOI

As a result of high anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the concentration of CO2 in the oceans has increased, causing a decrease in pH, known as ocean acidification (OA). Numerous studies have shown negative effects on marine invertebrates, and also that the early life stages are the most sensitive to OA. We studied the effects of OA on embryos and unfed larvae of the great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck), at pCO(2) levels of 469 (ambient), 807, 1164, and 1599 µatm until seven days after fertilization. To our knowledge, this is the first study on OA effects on larvae of this species. A drop in pCO(2) level the first 12 h was observed in the elevated pCO(2) groups due to a discontinuation in water flow to avoid escape of embryos. When the flow was restarted, pCO(2) level stabilized and was significantly different between all groups. OA affected both survival and shell growth negatively after seven days. Survival was reduced from 45% in the ambient group to 12% in the highest pCO(2) group. Shell length and height were reduced by 8 and 15 %, respectively, when pCO(2) increased from ambient to 1599 µatm. Development of normal hinges was negatively affected by elevated pCO(2) levels in both trochophore larvae after two days and veliger larvae after seven days. After seven days, deformities in the shell hinge were more connected to elevated pCO(2) levels than deformities in the shell edge. Embryos stained with calcein showed fluorescence in the newly formed shell area, indicating calcification of the shell at the early trochophore stage between one and two days after fertilization. Our results show that P. maximus embryos and early larvae may be negatively affected by elevated pCO(2) levels within the range of what is projected towards year 2250, although the initial drop in pCO(2) level may have overestimated the effect of the highest pCO(2) levels. Future work should focus on long-term effects on this species from hatching, throughout the larval stages, and further into the juvenile and adult stages.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne et al, 2014) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2014-07-09.

Identifier
DOI https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.833950
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-6161-2013
Related Identifier https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Metadata Access https://ws.pangaea.de/oai/provider?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=datacite4&identifier=oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.833950
Provenance
Creator Andersen, Sissel; Grefsrud, E S; Harboe, T
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2013
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
OpenAccess true
Representation
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset; Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 200 data points
Discipline Earth System Research