Effects of ocean acidification on the swimming ability, development and biochemical responses of sand smelt larvae, supplement to: Silva, Cátia S E; Novais, Sara C; Lemos, Marco F L; Mendes, Susana; Oliveira, A P; Gonçalves, Emanuel J; Faria, Ana M (2016): Effects of ocean acidification on the swimming ability, development and biochemical responses of sand smelt larvae. Science of the Total Environment, 563-564, 89-98

DOI

Ocean acidification, recognized as a major threat to marine ecosystems, has developed into one of the fastest growing fields of research in marine sciences. Several studies on fish larval stages point to abnormal behaviours, malformations and increased mortality rates as a result of exposure to increased levels of CO2. However, other studies fail to recognize any consequence, suggesting species-specific sensitivity to increased levels of CO2, highlighting the need of further research. In this study we investigated the effects of exposure to elevated pCO2 on behaviour, development, oxidative stress and energy metabolism of sand smelt larvae, Atherina presbyter. Larvae were caught at Arrábida Marine Park (Portugal) and exposed to different pCO2 levels (control: 600 µatm, pH = 8.03; medium: 1000 µatm, pH = 7.85; high: 1800 µatm, pH = 7.64) up to 15 days, after which critical swimming speed (Ucrit), morphometric traits and biochemical biomarkers were determined. Measured biomarkers were related with: 1) oxidative stress-superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and levels of superoxide anion production; 2) energy metabolism - total carbohydrate levels, electron transport system activity, lactate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Swimming speed was not affected by treatment, but exposure to increasing levels of pCO2 leads to higher energetic costs and morphometric changes, with larger larvae in high pCO2 treatment and smaller larvae in medium pCO2 treatment. The efficient antioxidant response capacity and increase in energetic metabolism only registered at the medium pCO2 treatment may indicate that at higher pCO2 levels the capacity of larvae to restore their internal balance can be impaired. Our findings illustrate the need of using multiple approaches to explore the consequences of future pCO2 levels on organisms.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2015) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2016-07-19.

Identifier
DOI https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.863138
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.091
Related Identifier https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Metadata Access https://ws.pangaea.de/oai/provider?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=datacite4&identifier=oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.863138
Provenance
Creator Silva, Cátia S E; Novais, Sara C; Lemos, Marco F L; Mendes, Susana; Oliveira, A P; Gonçalves, Emanuel J; Faria, Ana M
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2016
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
OpenAccess true
Representation
Language English
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset; Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 5835 data points
Discipline Earth System Research
Spatial Coverage (-8.983 LON, 38.480 LAT)
Temporal Coverage Begin 2014-07-01T00:00:00Z
Temporal Coverage End 2014-07-31T00:00:00Z