Seawater carbonate chemistry and the health and growth of eelgrass and the mass of oysters

DOI

Climate change is affecting the health and physiology of marine organisms and altering species interactions. Ocean acidification (OA) threatens calcifying organisms such as the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. In contrast, seagrasses, such as the eelgrass Zostera marina, can benefit from the increase in available carbon for photosynthesis found at a lower seawater pH. Seagrasses can remove dissolved inorganic carbon from OA environments, creating local daytime pH refugia. Pacific oysters may improve the health of eelgrass by filtering out pathogens such as Labyrinthula zosterae (LZ), which causes eelgrass wasting disease (EWD). We examined how co-culture of eelgrass ramets and juvenile oysters affected the health and growth of eelgrass and the mass of oysters under different pCO(2) exposures. In Phase I, each species was cultured alone or in co-culture at 12 degrees C across ambient, medium, and high pCO(2) conditions, (656, 1,158 and 1,606 mu atm pCO(2), respectively). Under high pCO(2), eelgrass grew faster and had less severe EWD (contracted in the field prior to the experiment). Co-culture with oysters also reduced the severity of EWD. While the presence of eelgrass decreased daytime pCO(2), this reduction was not substantial enough to ameliorate the negative impact of high pCO(2) on oyster mass. In Phase II, eelgrass alone or oysters and eelgrass in co-culture were held at 15 degrees C under ambient and high pCO(2) conditions, (488 and 2,013atm pCO(2), respectively). Half of the replicates were challenged with cultured LZ. Concentrations of defensive compounds in eelgrass (total phenolics and tannins), were altered by LZ exposure and pCO(2) treatments. Greater pathogen loads and increased EWD severity were detected in LZ exposed eelgrass ramets; EWD severity was reduced at high relative to low pCO(2). Oyster presence did not influence pathogen load or EWD severity; high LZ concentrations in experimental treatments may have masked the effect of this treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that, when exposed to natural concentrations of LZ under high pCO(2) conditions, eelgrass can benefit from co-culture with oysters. Further experimentation is necessary to quantify how oysters may benefit from co-culture with eelgrass, examine these interactions in the field and quantify context-dependency.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2019) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2020-07-07.

Identifier
DOI https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.920039
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2393
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6182522
Related Identifier https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=seacarb
Metadata Access https://ws.pangaea.de/oai/provider?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=datacite4&identifier=oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.920039
Provenance
Creator Groner, Maya L; Burge, Colleen A; Cox, Ruth; Rivlin, Natalie D; Turner, Mo; Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Wyllie‐Echeverria, Sandy; Bucci, John; Staudigel, Philip; Friedman, Carolyn S
Publisher PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2018
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
OpenAccess true
Representation
Language English
Resource Type Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 4984 data points
Discipline Earth System Research
Spatial Coverage (-122.952 LON, 48.691 LAT)